Basic sensor and sensors found in smartphones

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BASIC SENSORS

What is Sensor?

 

sensors

 

 

The sensor is an electronic device which detects and respond to some type of input from the physical environment and convert output signal in human-readable displayed language

Or we say
It is a device which is used to sense the physical quantity or non-electrical quantity

It measures parameters of any object and generated electric signal

Physics parameters
⬇️
Electronic devices
⬇️
Output

It is used for automation or where manpower not able to do it fastly

It is used to detect the object and do the switching and closed /open the circuit.

It is usually of 2 types
NPN


PNP

 

pnp

 

Npn: -ve output give always

Pnp: +ve output give always

We always select sensors according to object types and sensors always work for which the sensor is designed. Sensors manufacturing is done according to the object.

Some Sensors work on color-coding.

When we are designing a sensor we have to remember working factors

1. 💯Accuracy
2. Resolution
(How much it capable)
3. Range
4. Minimum / maximum
5. Environment condition

Here we take an example of a smartphone in this top 10 sensor most widely and commonly used in it:

Sensors bring intelligence and awareness to our smartphones. Today’s mobile devices are packed with nearly 10 sensors that produce raw data on motion, location, and the environment around us. This is made possible by the use of micro-electromechanical systems

First one

1. ACCELERATOR SENSOR

 

accelerator sensor

 

The accelerometer detects the orientation of phone when we change its position horizontal to vertical (in terms of mobile w portrait to landscape ).it detect tilt position phone and it exactly work on phenomena of exact orientation along the three x-axis, y-axis, and z axes 3D it also tells you about your phone screen is upward and downward
this whole procedure detected by the accelerometer.

2. GYROSCOPE SENSOR

 

magnetic sensor

 

15 most important commonly used nowadays it provides information about 360 view orientation detail and action like a for downward right left with great accuracy or how much our device is tilted this some factors where it differs from the accelerometer
Girls scope can measure rotation hundred percent, for example, we can see the scope in Google maps games like Pokemon go

3. MAGNETIC SENSOR

 

magnetic sensor

 

It operates on the principal Lorentz Force and detects magnet in nearby areas generally it’s always pointed at the planets the North Pole.

∆ INDUCTIVE SENSOR
IT DETECT METALLIC OBJECTS ONLY

The magnetometer sensor can detect metal (inductive)
Very well so it is used in metal detection apps too

we can also understand by the example of a GPS global positioning system.

GPS work on mainly three sensors accelerometer gyroscope magnetometer
and these three work together through create the perfection navigation system in your smartphone.

4. PROXIMITY SENSOR

 

proximity sensor

 

It works is to detect the distance of object without any physical contact let understand by its example
we see when someone calls you and your phone touch and light disable it this enables both touch and display to avoid unintended input through the skin.

One more realistic example we can see of a proximity sensor while parking car a sensor which indicates the distance between a car and a wall.

Proximity sensor work with the help of an IR sensor

∆.IR SENSOR (INFRARED RAYS SENSOR)

IT FIND OUT HOW CLOSE THE OBJECT (OR PHONE )
USED WHEN OUTSIDE OBJECT. HAIER GENERALLY FOUND IN TV REMOTES

5. AMBIENT LIGHT SENSOR

 

ambient light sensor

 

it detects and light in the environment and adjusts the display brightness in our smartphones according to light intensity frequency nowadays every mobile we have ABA -automatic brightness adjuster

6. TOUCH SCREEN SENSOR

 

touch screen sensor

 

Nowadays everyone is familiar and know about touchscreen smartphone everyone wants touch screen smartphone
it works when you touch the screen it has an electric current passing through it then the touchscreen causes a change in it and then the signal made. This change act s input for device and application open switch we have to use.

7. FINGERPRINT SENSOR

 

fingerprint sensor

Nowadays everyone wants her/ his personal information safe and secure. Don’t want to share it with anyone. Nowadays most of the people not memorizing password and pattern to unlock phone and sometimes we forgot password and pattern .so most of the people were prefer nowadays fingerprint scanner these days

Now in smartphones OPTICAL TOUCH SENSOR
it is invisible fingerprint sensor generally use in smartphones and most popular nowadays

when we touch the screen an invisible fingerprint scanner it creates a signal and converts light into electrical signal and change in light
we can also see the perfect example of the optical sensor
Mouse using PC’s

8. SPEEDOMETER / MOTION SENSOR

 

 

speedometer motion sensor

 

which is used for counting steps and fitness tracker makes use of the sensor to count the number of steps you have taken
Pediatr generally used the value generated by the accelerometer to monitor your

Let’s see a similar sensor

9. HEART RATE SENSOR

 

heart rate sensor


The heart sensor that measures heartbeat with the help of LED and optical sensor
Light emits towards rules skin and looks for the light wave reflect byte difference in the light intensity when the falls and the heartbeat it measures by counting the change in the light intensity between the minute and pulsation of the blood vessel

10. AIR HUMIDITY SENSOR

 

air humidity sensor


Humidity is the measure of the amount of water vapor present in air it is a low cost-sensitive electronic device used to measure the humidity of the air.

 

These are some more types of sensors.

Acoustic, sound, vibration
Geophone
Hydrophone
Lace Sensor a guitar pickup
Microphone
Seismometer
Sound locator
Automotive
Air flow meter
Air–fuel ratio meter
AFR sensor
Blind spot monitor
Crankshaft position sensor
Engine coolant temperature sensor
Hall effect sensor
Wheel speed sensor
Airbag sensors
Automatic transmission speed sensor
Brake fluid pressure sensor
Camshaft position sensor
Cylinder Head Temperature gauge
Crankshaft position sensor
Engine crankcase pressure sensor
Exhaust gas temperature sensor
Fuel level sensor
Fuel pressure sensor
Knock sensor
Light sensor
MAP sensor
Mass airflow sensor
Oil level sensor
Oil pressure sensor
Oxygen sensor (O2)
Parking sensor
Radar sensor
Speed sensor
Throttle position sensor
Tire pressure sensor
Torque sensor
Transmission fluid temperature sensor
Turbine speed sensor
Variable reluctance sensor
Vehicle speed sensor
Water-in-fuel sensor
Wheel speed sensor
ABS Sensors
Breathalyzer
Carbon dioxide sensor
Carbon monoxide detector
Catalytic bead sensor
Chemical field-effect transistor
Chemiresistor
Electrochemical gas sensor
Electronic nose
Electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor sensor
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
Fluorescent chloride sensors
Holographic sensor
Hydrocarbon dew point analyzer
Hydrogen sensor
Hydrogen sulfide sensor
Infrared point sensor
Ion-selective electrode
Nondispersive infrared sensor
Microwave chemistry sensor
Nitrogen oxide sensor
Olfactometer
Optode
Oxygen sensor
Ozone monitor
Pellistor
pH glass electrode
Potentiometric sensor
Redox electrode
Smoke detector
Zinc oxide nanorod sensor
Electric current, electric potential, magnetic
Current sensor
Daly detector
Electroscope
Electron multiplier
Faraday cup
Galvanometer
Hall effect sensor
Hall probe
Magnetic anomaly detector
Magnetometer
Magnetoresistance
MEMS magnetic field sensor
Metal detector
Planar Hall sensor
Radio direction finder
Voltage detector
Environment, weather, moisture, humidity
Actinometer
Air pollution sensor
Bedwetting alarm
Ceilometer
Dew warning
Electrochemical gas sensor
Fish counter
Frequency domain sensor
Gas detector
Hook gauge evaporimeter
Humistor
Hygrometer
Leaf sensor
Lysimeter
Pyranometer
Pyrgeometer
Psychrometer
Rain gauge
Rain sensor
Seismometer
Snow gauge
Soil moisture sensor
Stream gauge
Tide gauge
Flow, fluid velocity
Air flow meter
Anemometer
Flow sensor
Gas meter
Mass flow sensor
Water meter
Ionizing radiation, subatomic particles
Cloud chamber
Geiger counter
Geiger–Müller tube
Ionization chamber
Gaseous ionization detectors
Neutron detection
Proportional counter
Scintillation counter
Semiconductor detector
Thermoluminescent dosimeter
Airspeed indicator
Altimeter
Attitude indicator
Depth gauge
Fluxgate compass
Gyroscope
Inertial navigation system
Inertial reference unit
Magnetic compass
MHD sensor
Ring laser gyroscope
Turn coordinator
Variometer
Vibrating structure gyroscope
Yaw-rate sensor
Position, angle, displacement, distance, speed, acceleration
Auxanometer
Capacitive displacement sensor
Capacitive sensing
Flex sensor
Free fall sensor
Gravimeter
Gyroscopic sensor
Impact sensor
Inclinometer
Incremental encoder
Integrated circuit piezoelectric sensor
Laser rangefinder
Laser surface velocimeter
LIDAR
Linear encoder
Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)
Liquid capacitive inclinometers
Odometer
Photoelectric sensor
Piezoelectric accelerometer
Position sensor
Position sensitive device
Angular rate sensor
Rotary encoder
Rotary variable differential transformer
Selsyn
Shock detector
Shock data logger
Tilt sensor
Tachometer
Ultrasonic thickness gauge
Ultra-wideband radar
Variable reluctance sensor
Velocity receiver
Optical, light, imaging
Charge-coupled device
CMOS sensor
Colorimeter
Contact image sensor
Electro-optical sensor
Flame detector
Infra-red sensor
Kinetic inductance detector
LED as light sensor
Light-addressable potentiometric sensor
Nichols radiometer
Fiber optic sensors
Optical position sensor
Thermopile laser sensors
Photodetector
Photodiode
Photomultiplier tubes
Phototransistor
Photoelectric sensor
Photoionization detector
Photomultiplier
Photoresistor
Photoswitch
Phototube
Scintillometer
Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor
Single-photon avalanche diode
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector
Transition-edge sensor
Visible-light photon counter
Wavefront sensor
Barograph
Barometer
Boost gauge
Bourdon gauge
Hot filament ionization gauge
Ionization gauge
McLeod gauge
Oscillating U-tube
Permanent downhole gauge
Piezometer
Pirani gauge
Pressure sensor
Pressure gauge
Tactile sensor
Time pressure gauge
Force, density
Bhangmeter
Hydrometer
Force gauge and Force Sensor
Level sensor
Load cell
Magnetic level gauge
Nuclear density gauge
Piezocapacitive pressure sensor
Piezoelectric sensor
Strain gauge
Torque sensor
Viscometer
Thermal, heat, temperature
Bolometer
Bimetallic strip
Calorimeter
Exhaust gas temperature gauge
Flame detection
Gardon gauge
Golay cell
Heat flux sensor
Infrared thermometer
Microbolometer
Microwave radiometer
Net radiometer
Quartz thermometer
Resistance thermometer
Silicon bandgap temperature sensor
Special sensor microwave/imager
Temperature gauge
Thermistor
Thermocouple
Thermometer
Pyrometer
Proximity, presence
Alarm sensor
Doppler radar
Motion detector
Occupancy sensor
Proximity sensor
Passive infrared sensor
Reed switch
Stud finder
Triangulation sensor
Touch switch
Wired glove
Sensor technology
Active pixel sensor
Back-illuminated sensor
Biochip
Biosensor
Capacitance probe
Capacitance sensor
Catadioptric sensor
Carbon paste electrode
Digital sensors
Displacement receiver
Electromechanical film
Electro-optical sensor
Electrochemical fatigue crack sensor
Fabry–Pérot interferometer
Fisheries acoustics
Image sensor
Image sensor format
Inductive sensor
Intelligent sensor
Lab-on-a-chip
Leaf sensor
Machine vision
Microelectromechanical systems
Photoelasticity
Quantum sensor
Radar
Ground-penetrating radar
Synthetic aperture radar
Radar tracker
Stretch sensor
Sensor array
Sensor fusion
Sensor grid
Sensor node
Soft sensor
Sonar
Staring array
Transducer
Ultrasonic sensor
Video sensor
Visual sensor network
Wheatstone bridge
Wireless sensor network

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